Frequently asked questions about the use of Lechler nozzles and nozzle systems in agriculture and the corresponding answers can be found in the following compilation.
CV is the coefficient of variation and describes the evenness of the liquid distribution along the boom. In some countries this is a criteria in the mandatory sprayer check and has to be below 10%.
Lechler nozzles match the even higher German JKI guideline for new nozzles of being below 7% at all spray heights (120° nozzle: 40 – 50 – 60 cm) and pressure settings (depending on the nozzle type; the pressure range for a nozzle type is mentioned in our catalogues).
The 120° spray angle gives a better overlap along the boom at the recommended 50 cm boom height above the target when compared to 110°.
Therefore, the coverage and evenness of the spray is better, even there might be some variation of height during spray operation due to either boom movement or rolling field.
Lechler plastic nozzles are manufactured from high performance POM.
The material shows excellent wear resistance as well as chemical resistance against all common used plant protection products and liquid fertilizers.
Wear always depends on pressure and the liquid going through a nozzle.
At higher spray pressure, higher wear is observed. If more powder products or water with quicksand from a well are sprayed, there are more small particles in which will cause more abrasion. Several field tests show, that the lifetime of a ceramic tip can easily be 2 to 3 times higher compared to plastic.
Industrial customers have access to the Lechler Online Shop. There is no online shop for agricultural nozzle technology.
When should nozzles be cleaned?
How are nozzles cleaned properly?With a nozzle brush or toothbrush
Recommendations and practical experiences are summarized in our article "It doesn't work without nozzle cleaning".
The suction filter (pump protection) must always be coarse (25 M). The pressure filter must take over the main filter performance in the system – large filter area, flushing possible. For small nozzle sizes and without a nozzle strainer, an 80 M pressure filter (ISO color yellow) is recommended.
In general the use of nozzle strainers is recommended. The recommendation of the correct nozzle strainer size (25 M, 60 M, 80 M) can be found in our spraytables depending on the nozzle size.
A spray nozzle atomizes liquid into droplets of different sizes. The range from the smallest to the biggest droplet represents the droplet spectra.
The droplet spectrum is influenced by several factors:
The volumetric mean diameter (VMD) of the spray decreases with increasing spray pressure and spray angle, decreasing viscosity and surface tension, and increasing density of the liquid.
As the viscosity of the liquid and the spray angle decreases, the drop size spectrum becomes narrower.
PWM can be used to control the flow rate of a nozzle on a sprayer. Due to the fast closing and opening (10 – 30/sec) of the valve, the flow rate is controlled precisely, varying amounts of spray liquid are applied at the same pressure and maintaining droplet size with just one nozzle size.
For pre and post emergence applications double flat fan nozzles avoid spray shadows e.g. on cloddy soils and cover the small vertical leaves of black grass on both sides in direction of travel.
IDKT: The two symmetric fans, one 30° to the front and the other 30° backwards for sprayer speeds up to 12 km/h.
IDTA: asymmetric fans, one 30° to the front and the other 50° backwards for sprayer speeds of 10 km/h and higher.
Twin flat spray nozzles
Flat fan nozzles
Whenever small vertical targets needs to be covered (e.g. black-grass), twin flat fan nozzles provide better coverage. Furthermore, spray shadows are avoided in case of small herbs or cloddy soil. Also, ear treatment, potato desiccation show better results with twin nozzles, too.
For sure, in an air injector twin nozzle the fan forming orifices are smaller compared to a standard air injector fan orifice. A 04 twin does have about two times 025 exit orifices.
The amount of water, which goes through the air injector nozzle, is determined by the dosing orifice at the top of the nozzle and not by the nozzle tip. The dosing orifice matches the flow rate of ISO standard. The orifice to form the fan is always bigger at a standard air induction nozzle.
Both Lechler double flat fan nozzles operate deliberately with a 30° spray angle to the front and hence against the air drag and wind. This ensures an optimum deposition and coverage on the front of the crop. The flater 50° spray angle to the rear of the IDTA ensures the spray coverage at higher travel speeds above 10 km/h on the rear side.
The nozzle series differ in the length of the nozzle body and therefore in the size of the injector.
The long version air injector nozzles ID3 and IDTA work over a bigger spray pressure range and remain coarse even at 8 bar. The recommended spray pressure range is 4 – 8 bar.
The compact version air injector nozzles IDK/IDKN and IDKT work ideally drift stable at the lower spray pressure range from 1.5 – 3 bar. At higher spray pressure the fine droplet fraction increases and causes drift under unfavourable weather conditions or higher forward speeds.
Long air injector are much more flexible in use and drift stable with regard to changing forward speeds or l/ha rates. The compact air injector nozzles (IDK/IDKN, IDKT) have a narrower usable pressure range and "mist" earlier.
IDKT 120 is a symmetrical double flat spray nozzle in compact design and in sizes 02-06 with approval of 90% registered in the JKI directory for loss reducing technology. It achieves very good coverage of small grasses/herbs or on vertical surfaces – the double flat fan reduces effectively spray shadows. Optimum pressure 1.5 – 3 bar, at pressures >3 bar can be applied deliberately medium droplets to hit smallest targets. Optionally available in plastic (POM) or ceramic (size 03-06).
As an asymmetric double flat jet nozzle, especially advantageous for speeds >10 km/h to reduce spray shadows here as well. As a long nozzle at 3 – 8 bar, even when the pressure is increased, there is little change in the droplet spectrum. Reduced spray angle to the rear compensates for the longer "trajectory" of the droplets – no overspray of the field edge, plus wind stable.
Ideal in the low pressure range of 1.5 – 3 bar. At higher pressures > 3 bar, medium droplets and low drift reduction. Canopy penetration is less compared to a single-fan IDK/N.
At 3 bar and higher, very good deposition. Canopy penetration is less compared to a single-fan ID.
80°/90° flat spray nozzles are suitable for 25 cm nozzle spacing along the spray boom. Most of these nozzles are made of ceramic. 110°/120° flat spray nozzles are suitable for either 25 cm or 50 cm nozzle spacing along the spray boom. Most of these nozzles are available in plastic (POM) and ceramic (C).
If the boom height is low in case of autumn or spring herbicide/first fungicide application, the front spray jet of the twin nozzle hits no implement parts – consistent use of the double fan technique is possible. At higher boom position and small distance between the nozzles and the sprayer frame it is possible to spray on sprayer parts.
Originally developed for the application of fertilizer with drag hoses, the application of crop protection products with reduced nozzle spacing have been increasingly propagated during the last years. The aim is to reduce drift with good boom guidance and a low target distance – the target area distance has a major influence on drift. JKI-approved nozzles with 120 degree spray angle work up to 40 cm target distance at 50 cm nozzle distance with good lateral distribution. Even at 25 cm nozzle spacing, these nozzle types can work individually (every 50 cm, for example, at slow travel or low l/ha rates) or in any combination with other 120 degree nozzles at faster travel or higher water rates. The minimum and maximum heights of the JKI approval can be applied. Nozzles with the same optimal pressure range should be combined (e.g. 2 x "short" or 2 x "long" nozzles). In case of lower target area distance of less than 40 cm, the nozzle output must be the same every 25 cm / same nozzle size as e.g. IDK 90-015/02 or also 2 x an 03 nozzle with 120 degree spray angle.
Reduction of drift if the boom is guided safely at 50 cm or less, "nozzle gear" (switching) for optimum nozzle size/pressure depending on requirements, nozzle change from the cab.
With slow travel/low water quantities also "only" 50 cm nozzle spacing possible, as otherwise the nozzle size becomes very small. Good filtration and equipment hygiene are necessary, as smaller nozzle calibres are used.
Recommended Lechler drift reducing nozzles for the use in air blast sprayers are flat spray types like ID 90, IDK 90 and AD 90 as well as the hollow cone type ITR 80. The compact IDK 90 injector nozzle results in a high biological efficacy through coarse to medium droplet application at 8 – 15 bar. At the same time, depending on the blower type, up to 95% drift reduction is possible.
If contact agents are used primarily (e.g. organic farming) the AD 90 series is recommended. Depending on the spray pressure, a coarse, medium to fine droplet application improves the coverage. In addition, the flow velocity in the nozzle is very high, which makes the nozzle very robust even with difficult spray tank solutions or mixtures.
You can select the right nozzle size with our nozzle calculator for orchards, viticulture, specialty crops.
Lists with drift reducing nozzles and combinations of blower types for different countries are available in our support section.
The droplet spectrum of the Lechler FD fertilizer nozzle is extreme coarse and comparable to the drop size of stream nozzles.
The main advantage of FD is to release the droplets almost horizontal at a low pressure, so they fall into the canopy just like rain by gravity. This is an important advantage when applying liquid fertilizer. Often times scorch is caused by mechanical damage of the waxy layer due to high kinetic energy and impact in the droplet or stream. This even more if application takes place after a rainy period or when there is a lot of dew in the canopy, which weakens the waxy layer.
For late fertilizer applications when the crop is already big (e.g. late application in cereals), it is recommendable to use a hose drop system like 5S and 5SL or the DroplegUL. With those systems, damage can be avoided because the fertilizer is applied into the canopy and not on the top of the crops.
Yes. In contrast to FD nozzles which are not approved or suitable for crop protection applications.
Optimal conditions for proper UAN applications are:
Application technique requirements:
VR, FD and FS/FL nozzles
Recommended at the beginning of vegetation period and in open crop canopy. Ideal application with the extremely coarse droplet VR / FD nozzle with best lateral distribution.
FL or FS (five-orifice nozzles)
These nozzles are also extremely coarse-dropping. Fertilizer nozzles are recommended in fall and spring up to BBCH 49. Please follow professional practice.
Hose drop systems 5S, 5SL
For late fertilizer applications e.g. quality application in cereals or for safe application in damp and dewy canopies.
Suitable for plant-friendly fertilization in cereals and row crops e.g. corn, sunflowers, etc. – equipped with FL nozzles; no floating over the canopy even at higher forward speeds results in higher work rate.
ID3 or IDK/IDKN
Recommended only at lower pressure range for UAN pure or in combination with a herbicide. Also late foliar application with diluted UAN (ration 1:3 or 1:4 or max. 30 l UAN/ha).